What is ERP?

What is ERP

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software offers a set of tools that share a common process and data model, covering end-to-end operational processes, such as accounting, analytics, inventory management, customer relationship management (CRM), and human resources (HR) management.

Put simply, ERP software unites otherwise segregated processes into a central data network, helping businesses better track information while gathering insights from across the departmental spectrum.

  • Benefits of ERP software

  • Competitive advantages of using ERP software

  • Business sizes using ERP software

  • Features guide

  • FAQs

  • Tips and tools

  • Market trends to understand

  • Software related to the ERP market​

Benefits of ERP software

It might be a mouthful to say, but an ERP software system has plenty of benefits for businesses to chew on. Let's discuss a few of these.

  • Streamlined business operations: An ERP solution stores and tracks data across an organization, from warehouse management to benefits administration. Many ERP packages provide these functions as built-in software modules, but some also offer users the option to integrate stand-alone third-party tools, thus consolidating disparate applications into a single, unified ERP system.

  • Workflow automation: By leveraging advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technology (e.g., machine learning, natural language processing), an ERP solution can automate routine business processes and free up human capital to focus on tasks that require human intervention.

  • Advanced analytics: ERP software offers greater analytical depth than other stand-alone systems, pulling a wealth of data from across your business into detailed and easy-to-decipher analytics dashboards that provide both big-picture insights and granularity.

  • Enhanced accessibility: With an increasing number of cloud-based options and internet of things (IoT)-enabled functionality such as smartphone access, ERP applications offer businesses unprecedented visibility into day-to-day operations. And all that information is accessible in real time, giving users the ability to retrieve and modify data on the fly.

Competitive advantages of using ERP software

In a rapidly evolving technology landscape, businesses that utilize an ERP software solution to streamline operations will reap benefits such as:

  • Increased operational efficiency: Through process automation and lean workflow management, an ERP platform can significantly boost operational efficiency and productivity.

  • Better data management: Data mismanagement and disorganization can stagnate a business, preventing it from reaching its full potential. But with ERP software, individuals across a business can find the information they need in a single system, rather than juggling multiple tools and risking duplicate or inaccurate data.

  • Informed business decisions: With advanced analytics comes deeper insights, giving decision-makers greater breadth of detail and a better understanding of business initiatives. The reporting capabilities of ERP software empower leaders to make more informed decisions and better position their business for success.

Business sizes using ERP software

Because of the costs and resources necessary to implement on-premise systems, ERP software has been traditionally associated with large enterprise businesses. But with the increasing availability of cloud computing solutions and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ERP subscription models, the typical buyer profile has expanded to include the following:

  • Small-business buyers: These are companies with two to 100 employees that make less than $50 million per year and have no IT department.

  • Midsize-business buyers: These companies also have two to 100 employees and make less than $50 million a year, but they have an IT department.

  • Enterprise-business buyers: These are large companies that have more than 100 employees, make over $50 million a year and have a dedicated IT department.


  • What are the key functions of ERP software?

As discussed in the "Benefits of ERP Software" section above, ERP software provides several key functions for your business, including:

  • Streamlined operations: Store and track data from across the organization—including third-party integrations—to consolidate and streamline business functions.

  • Workflow automation: Automate routine processes and free up human capital with AI and machine learning. Order management, inventory control, financial management, human resource functions, and sometimes even basic project management tools can be automated.

  • Advanced analytics: Get big-picture insights and gauge the success of business initiatives with detailed reporting and analytics dashboards.

Enhanced accessibility: Utilize IoT-enhanced platforms, such as cloud-based software and mobile apps, for better visibility into daily operations.

  • What should I ask vendors when evaluating ERP software?

Getting hands-on experience through product demos, while important, is not sufficient to evaluate ERP software options. You need to ensure that your preferred ERP software not only streamlines operations but also addresses business concerns. Engage with the vendor's sales representative and ask some tough questions, such as:

  • How does the system architecture leverage emerging technologies?

The ERP landscape is evolving at a pace we've never seen, with new technologies such as AI and third-party integrations becoming near ubiquitous. An ERP software system's longevity—and your investment—therefore depends on whether these technologies are baked into the underlying system architecture, rather than tacked on after the fact.

  • How much will it cost to secure and maintain access to desired capabilities?

If you're handing over the funds for an ERP software solution, you probably want to know how your money is being spent. Ask your vendor to detail all of the initial costs (e.g., procurement and implementation), ongoing expenses (e.g., support and subscription fees), and avoided costs (e.g., ditching your old CRM software).

  • What services are available to support implementation and deployment?

ERP implementation is often long and laborious, which is why many vendors offer services to guide you through the process. Businesses with limited or no IT expertise should inquire about such services and evaluate the vendor's response time and attentiveness before signing on the dotted line.

  • What long-term strategies are in place to improve your products and services?

Buying a new ERP solution is a long-term investment and should support your business needs for at least three to five years (likely more). To get the most out of your purchase, ask vendors what their product will look like one year, five years, or even 10 years down the road to gauge its future viability.

  • What is postmodern ERP?

As software integrations became more prevalent, a new "postmodern" breed of ERP systems emerged. In short, the term refers to the selective adoption of stand-alone software integrations to form a unified system rather than the adoption of a single, monolithic piece of ERP software.


  • What’s the difference between on-premise and cloud ERP software?

Traditionally, ERP systems were hosted on and deployed via on-premise servers. But today, nearly every ERP vendor offers some form of cloud-based deployment, or SaaS. A cloud ERP system is hosted on the vendor's server and accessible through a web browser or mobile app.


  • What are some drawbacks I should watch out for?

Successful implementation of an ERP software solution requires significant capital and exhaustive preparation. Without them, implementation failure and damaging financial losses are likely. 

Given this degree of difficulty, ERP software isn't a viable solution for every business—especially small businesses that lack the necessary resources. But the barriers to entry are lower than they've ever been, with lower upfront costs and more industry-specific offerings.